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The Bobath concept is an approach to neurological physiotherapy that is applied in patient assessment and treatment. The goal of applying the Bobath concept is to promote motor learning for efficient motor control in various environments, thereby improving participation and function. This is done through specific patient handling skills to guide patients through initiation and completion of intended tasks. This approach to neurological physiotherapy is multidisciplinary, primarily involving physiotherapists, occupational therapists and speech and language therapists. The Bobath concept is also known as 'neuro-developmental treatment' (NDT).
Reflex locomotion where "Reflex", in these sense does not refer to the kind of the neuronal regulation but is rather related to therapeutically applied external stimuli and their predefined and always identical, "automatically" present movement responses. The therapeutic use of reflex locomotion enables elementary patterns of movement in patients with impaired central nervous systems and locomotor system to be restored once more - at least in part -, i.e. they become accessible once more. In Vojta Therapy, the therapist administers goal-directed pressure to defined zones on the body. In everyone - regardless of age - such stimuli lead automatically and involuntarily, i.e. without actively willed cooperation on the part of the person concerned, to movement complexes. In reflex locomotion, there is a coordinated, rhythmic activation of the total skeletal musculature and a central nervous system response at various circuit levels. The motor reactions, stimulated by pressure from a defined starting position and which proceed regularly and cyclically, can already be completely stimulated and reproduced as often as desired in the new-born.
Sensory integration is a term that has been used to describe processes in the brain that allow us to take the information we receive from our senses, organize it, and respond appropriately. The different parts of our body receive sensory information from our environment (such as our skin, eyes and ears) and send this information up to the brain. Our brain interprets the information it receives, compares it to other information coming in as well as to information stored in our memory and then the brain uses all of this information to help us respond to our environment. For most people, sensory processing develops in the course of ordinary childhood activities. When a person has good sensory processing skills then they are able to integrate information automatically and efficiently. But for some people, sensory processing does not develop as efficiently as it should and can affect activities of daily living, academic achievement, behaviour or social participation. Sensory integration therapy takes place on a 1:1 basis in a room with suspended equipment for varying movement and sensory experiences. The goal of therapy is not to teach skills, but to follow the child's lead and artfully select and modify activities according to the child's responses. The activities afford a variety of opportunities to experience tactile, vestibular, and proprioceptive input in a way that provides the "just right" challenge for the child to promote increasingly more complex adaptive responses to environmental challenges.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation is a set of stretching techniques commonly used to enhance both the active and passive range of motion in order to improve motor performance and aid rehabilitation. PNF is considered an optimal stretching method when the aim is to increase range of motion, especially as regards short-term changes. PNF helps to restore normal movement by focusing on the developing sequence of movement and how the agonist and antagonist muscles work together to produce volitional movement. PNF uses reflexive movement as a basis for learning more volitional movement. The idea is that one must be able to roll before he can crawl and crawl before he walks. PNF focuses on mass movement patterns that are diagonal and resemble functional movement. The body does not work in parts, but instead as a whole. In order to promote these mass movement patterns, PNF uses a multi-sensory approach, incorporating the auditory, visual and tactile systems. PNF allows the patient to understand what normal movement feels like through the use of various senses through the use of manual contacts to cue the patient and facilitate movement.
Cranio-sacral therapy is a delicate and subtle work with the patient's body. It involves manipulation and compression of the skull, sacrum and spine to release and relax connective tissue structures, whose tension can cause body dysfunction and various health problems. This therapy is based on the anatomical and physiological foundations of the craniosacral complex, which was considered one of the three pillars (next to the respiratory and cardiovascular systems) responsible for survival. The craniosacral complex has been described as the primary respiratory system. Breath of Life is thought to produce biodynamic potency in body fluids. It is the ordering force that controls the form and function of the human body and mind. Breath of Life at the cellular level is a prerequisite for maintaining health. When it becomes stagnant or limited, this regulatory basis can be inhibited, which will be reflected in the state of health.
The myofascial release technique is one of the most effective forms of work with the fascial or myofascial system for its relaxation. Unlike many other forms of therapy, it is performed in an extremely subtle and safe way. The ability to move dynamically and efficiently is largely caused by biomechanical properties of the fascia. It helps to maintain the shape of the muscle and provide buttress to develop strength. By pre-stretch, the fascia is accumulating kinetic energy, which is released during movement in cooperation with the muscle (e.g. thoracolumbar fascia while walking). Fascia is responsible for stability and at the same time for agile mobility. The goal of myofascial release is to release muscular shortness and tightness and to remove tissue restrictions in the body. Poor posture, monotonous, repetitive movements or limited movements, as well as overloads and incorrect loads, cause inflammation of the fascial. Fasciae lose their elasticity, slippage between single layers is reduced, and small cracks are formed. This tissue is also prone to felting. These dysfunctions can lead to irritation of pain receptors. In myofascial release therapy, we do not focus on the place of pain or dysfunction but on disorders throughout the fascial system. The basis of this therapy is palpation and manual techniques, performed with adjustment to the patient's clinical condition.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MANUAL FEET THERAPY FOR CHILDREN
This method treats foot defects not as a local problem, but a whole-body disorder. Foot defects may result, for example, from incorrect development of the hip joints, from postural asymmetry, or from neurological disorders. In the same way, a congenital foot defect can disturb the functioning of other body elements. This method uses a characteristic manual examination, which is designed to illustrate the problem and allow to measure the effectiveness of therapy. It is important that the activities carried out at home by parents are regular - often 2-4 times per day. The effect of each therapeutic session is usually solidified by the use of functional bandaging. This therapy requires a lot of commitment and dedication, however, it often enables to avoid surgery and use of plaster casts that inhibit the natural activity of the feet, lead to muscle weakness, joint stiffness and keratosis of the skin.
The Kinesio Taping Method is a rehabilitative taping technique that is designed to facilitate the body's natural healing process while providing support and stability to muscles and joints without restricting the body's range of motion. When the tape is applied to the body, it recoils slightly, gently lifting your skin. That helps to create a microscopic space between the skin and the tissues and unloads the underlying tissues. The tape changes the information sent to the brain about pain, discomfort and compression in the body. Kinesio Taping is providing extended soft tissue manipulation to prolong the benefits of physiotherapy and manual therapy administered within the clinical setting. Latex-free and wearable for days at a time, Kinesio Tex Tape is safe, and successfully treats a variety of orthopaedic, neuromuscular, neurological and other medical conditions.
It's a therapy that is carried out in a special soft dynamic orthosis that includes a hat, vest, shorts, knee pads, and specially-designed therapeutic shoes. The suit has hooks that allow bungee cord-like ropes to be inserted and adjusted according to the child's height. Its major goal is to improve and change proprioception (pressure from the joints, ligaments, muscles), influence muscle tone, reduce pathological reflexes, restore physiological muscle synergies (proper patterns of movement), improve movement coordination, load the entire body with weight (a process similar to a reaction of our muscles to the gravitational forces acting up us for 24 hours). All of the above normalizes afferent vestibulo-proprioceptive input (information arriving in the vestibular system). All this affect and normalize afferent vestibulo-proprioceptive input (information arriving in the vestibular system). The vestibulo-proprioceptive system is responsible for detecting and then sending information from the receptors located in muscles, joints and tendons to the brain. The brain interprets that inputs, compare with other incoming information, as well as with those stored in memory. Then all available data is used to create and coordinate the response that is effective and adequate to the situation and the environment. While wearing the suit, the child participates in a series of specific exercises in a therapeutic setting. Following an exercise regime while wearing the suit is said to help children reduce symptoms of ataxia, spasticity, and others that typically coexist with cerebral palsy. Suit therapy influence muscle tone and strength, improve movement coordination, balance and the position of the body in space, help with body awareness by creating correct body scheme.